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Lesson Six

A real quick overview of the lessons so far:

subject thing(s)actionobject thing(s)

To form questions, place "cxu" in front of the statements:

La knabo mangxas.
Cxu la knabo mangxas?

Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto unu)

[ki-, ti-, i-, cxi-, neni-] plus [o, a, e, u, om, am , el, al, es] forms 45 correlative (interrelated) words. Give below the meanings of the roots (5):

  1. ki
  2. ti
  3. i
  4. cxi
  5. neni

and endings (9):

  1. o
  2. a
  3. e
  4. u
  5. om
  6. am
  7. el
  8. al
  9. es

Try without referring back to lesson five. If you find yourself referring too often, you may want to review the lesson before continuing. The correlatives are hard to learn out of context, but the combinations will come naturally after a while.

Difficult sound: one of the hardest sounds for English speakers to master is the 'c' or /ts/ sound. Imagine it as below and it's easier than it seems:


Vocabulary note: The English word 'old' may be the opposite of both 'new' and 'young'. Therefore there are two translations for 'old' in Esperanto: juna (young) - maljuna (old) or nova (new) - malnova (old). Pay attention!

Prepositions (little words which show the relationship between two other words.)

cup on table; saucer under cup; milk with sugar in coffee

Some prepositions in Esperanto:

altogxisuntil, up to
cxenear, withkunwith, together
deof, fromporfor
dumwhile, duringprofor (because of)
suron (position)

Mi estas membro de la Junulara Esperantista Klubo, kaj mi iris al la Esperanto-Kongreso, kiu okazis en San-Francisko. Ni vojagxis de Nov-Jorko dum tri tagoj en nia auxtobuseto, kaj ne haltis gxis ni alvenis al Dalaso, en Teksaso. Tie ni vizitis niajn geamikojn kaj mangxis. Ni portis sandvicxojn por la tagmangxo, kaj ili estis sub la segxoj sur kiuj ni sidis. Ni dankis niajn geamikojn pro la bona kongreso.

[Vocabulary: Junularo: a group of young people; okazi: to take place; auxtobuseto: minibus; alveni al: to arrive at; tagmangxo: lunch; geamikoj: friends (male and female); iri: to go].

Note the use of "pro" after "dankis". Prepositions can be tricky - there is no word-for-word correspondence between prepositions in English and Esperanto. The "Plena Vortaro" (Esperanto-Esperanto dictionary) is a good source of examples.

More prepositions in Esperanto:

anstatauxinstead ofkontrauxagainst
antauxin front of, beforeperwith (by means of)
apudnear, next topostafter (time)
daof (quantities)priabout, concerning
eksteroutside (of)senwithout
elout of, from withinsuperabove
interamong, betweentrathrough

La knabo sen hejmtasko staris antaux la instruisto; anstataux la hejmtasko, li prenis el koverto leteron pri la afero. Estis bela tago ekster la cxambro, kaj la instruisto staris apud la fenestro, tra kiu venis brila sunlumo, per kiu li legis la leteron.

Inter la vortoj estis tiom da tipaj knabaj eraroj, ke post nelonge, la knabo klinigxis super la tablo, kaj pantoflo batis kontraux lia postajxo.

[Vocabulary: hejmtasko: homework; stari: to stand; preni: to take; koverto: envelope; afero: case; fenestro: window; veni: to come; sunlumo: sunlight; legi: to read; vorto: word; tipa: typical; klini: bow, lean over; pantoflo: slipper; bati: to hit; postajxo: behind, bottom]

Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto du)

Respondu cxi tiujn demandojn en Esperanto:
(Answer these questions in Esperanto)

  1. Kia klubo gxi estas?
  2. Kion ni portis kun ni?
  3. Kie ili estis?
  4. Kio okazis en San-Francisko?
  5. Dum kiom da tagoj ni vojagxis?
  6. Cxu iu staris antaux la instruisto?
  7. Kio venis tra la fenestro?
  8. Kiom da hejmtaskoj faris la knabo?
  9. Kiel la instruisto batis lin (per kio?)
  10. Kial la instruisto batis lin? (cxar = because)

More about prepositions: When an 'object thing' occurs in a sentence, and when that 'object thing' is a pronoun (I, he, she, etc.) it takes the object or accusative form (me, him, her, etc). Thus we say that the preposition in English 'governs' or requires the accusative form. The only place in English where the accusative is different from the nominative (subject form) is in the pronouns.

A cake for him.
A letter for her.

In Esperanto, a preposition governs the nominative (subject) form of a thing, either noun or pronoun.

Kuko por li. (not lin!)
Letero por sxi. (not sxin!)

You will be well understood if you follow this rule. But don't be surprised if you see a preposition followed by a "-n" word! Let's see why:

There is a difference between "I walked in the garden" and "I walked into the garden". In the first case, I was already in the garden, walking around, and in the second case, I was outside the garden and walked to a position inside the garden.

Instead of"I walked into the garden"
we can say:"I walked to in-the-garden",
which translates:"Mi promenis al en-la-gxardeno."
and we actually say:"Mi promenis en la gxardenon."

Ah ha! The last "-n" indicates the omitted preposition, usually 'al', which showed movement toward something. Therefore we can say, "The accusative "-n" after a preposition shows motions toward."

Mi iris en la cxambron. (into the room)
Mi promenas ekster la domon. (to the outside of)

Do not use "-n" after: al, gxis, de, el. They already show motion.

Also: Use "-n" with dates to show an omitted preposition: Mi estis en Nov-Jorko pasintan mardon [(on) last Tuesday].

Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto tri)

Translate into Esperanto.

  1. I came on a bicycle.
  2. I cycled into San Francisco.
  3. I cycled in San Francisco.
  4. She runs on the grass (herbo).
  5. He will run onto the grass.
  6. He ran behind the tree (arbo).
  7. He smoked behind the tree.
  8. She traveled with a friend.
  9. He wrote with a pen.
  10. He put (meti) the pen under the paper.

Don't forget to mail these exercises to your tutor, with subject: 'FEC ekz 6'.