Free Esperanto Course

Contents

  1. Vocabulary
  2. Esperanto Affixes
  3. Esperanto Correlatives

Vocabulary

Esperanto ⇒ English Esperanto ⇐ English
acxet/i buy pri about, concerning
adiaux goodbye super above
aer/o air Afrik/o Africa
afer/o case, affair, thing post after
Afrik/o Africa denove again
akr/a sharp kontraux against
akv/o water aer/o air
al to(wards) jam already
ali/a other ankaux also
am/i love inter among, between
amik/o friend kaj and
angl/o Englishman respond/i answer
ankaux also apetit/o appetite
anstataux instead of april/o April
antaux in front of, before sag/o arrow
apetit/o appetite demand/i ask (a question)
april/o April pet/i ask (request)
apud beside cxe at
arb/o tree auxgust/o August
atend/i wait for for away
atest/i testify frauxl/o bachelor
aux or pilk/o ball
auxd/i hear est/i be
auxgust/o August pov/i be able to
auxskult/i listen plagx/o beach
auxt/o car bel/a beautiful
auxtobus/o bus cxar because, since (conj.)
bat/i hit bier/o beer
bel/a beautiful komenc/i begin (trans.)
bezon/i need gxoj/i be glad
bicikl/o bicycle placx/i be pleasing
bier/o beer sat/i be satisfied
bigami/o bigamy apud beside
bilard/o billiards, pool bicikl/o bicycle
bird/o bird grand/a big
blank/a white bigami/o bigamy
blind/a blind bilard/o billiards, pool
blond/a blonde bird/o bird
blu/a blue nigr/a black
bon/a good blind/a blind
bov/o cow, bull, ox blond/a blonde
bril/i shine blu/a blue
brun/a brown ost/o bone
bub/o brat libr/o book
bufed/o buffet klin/i bow, lean over (trans.)
butik/o shop skatol/o box
butikum/i go (be) out shopping knab/o boy
cel/o target, goal bub/o brat
cent hundred pan/o bread
ci thou frat/o brother
cigared/o cigarette brun/a brown
cxambr/o room bufed/o buffet
cxar because, since (conj.) auxtobus/o bus
cxas/i hunt, chase sed but
cxe at acxet/i buy
cxeval/o horse per by means of
cxi this (with correlative) kuk/o cake
cxokolad/o chocolate kanjon/o canyon
cxu (interr.) (is it true that...) auxt/o car
da of (quantity) port/i carry, wear
danc/i dance afer/o case, affair, thing
dank/i thank kat/o cat
dauxr/i continue, last kapt/i catch
de of, from segx/o chair
decembr/o December infan/o child
dek ten cxokolad/o chocolate
demand/i ask (a question) hxor/o choir
denove again cigared/o cigarette
dens/a dense pur/a clean, pure
dev/i must ferm/i close
dezir/i wish, desire klub/o club, group
dimancx/o Sunday kaf/o coffee
dir/i say kokakol/o Coke
disk/o record, disc ven/i come
dolcx/a sweet kongres/o congress, convention
dom/o house kontent/a content
dorm/i sleep dauxr/i continue, last
du two kuir/i cook
dum while, during korespond/i correspond
edz/o husband kost/i cost
ehx/o echo land/o country, land
ekster outside kurs/o course
ekzerc/i exercise bov/o cow, bull, ox
el out of kri/i cry
en in plor/i cry
erar/o error tas/o cup
eskim/o Eskimo trancx/i cut
esperant/o esperanto danc/i dance
est/i be tag/o day
Euxrop/a European decembr/o December
facil/a easy dens/a dense
fal/i fall far/i do, make
famili/o family hund/o dog
far/i do, make rob/o dress
fart/i fare trink/i drink
februar/o February sek/a dry
felicx/a happy ter/o earth
fenestr/o window facil/a easy
ferm/i close mangx/i eat
fil/o son ehx/o echo
fin/i finish / end (trans.) ov/o egg
flav/a yellow ok eight
for away angl/o Englishman
forges/i forget kovert/o envelope
frat/o brother erar/o error
frauxl/o bachelor eskim/o Eskimo
fum/o smoke esperant/o esperanto
gajn/i win Euxrop/a European
geografi/o geography vesper/o evening
glaci/o ice ekzerc/i exercise
glob/o globe, sphere fal/i fall
gol/o goal famili/o family
grand/a big fart/i fare
griz/a grey patr/o father
gust/o taste februar/o February
gxangal/o jungle trov/i find
gxarden/o garden fin/i finish / end (trans.)
gxi it kvin five
gxis until nutrajx/o food, nourishment
gxoj/i be glad por for
halt/i stop (intrans.) forges/i forget
hav/i have kvar four
hejm/o home vendred/o Friday
herb/o grass amik/o friend
hom/o person plen/a full
hor/o hour gxarden/o garden
hund/o dog geografi/o geography
hxor/o choir glob/o globe, sphere
ide/o idea ir/i go
ili they butikum/i go (be) out shopping
imag/i imagine gol/o goal
indian/o indian (N American) bon/a good
infan/o child adiaux goodbye
insekt/o insect herb/o grass
instru/i teach verd/a green
inter among, between salut/i greet
interes/i interest (trans.) griz/a grey
interes/o interest felicx/a happy
ir/i go hav/i have
jahxt/o yacht li he
jam already san/a healthy
januar/o January auxd/i hear
jar/o year bat/i hit
je (indef. preposition) hejm/o home
jes yes cxeval/o horse
juli/o July hor/o hour
jun/a young dom/o house
juni/o June cent hundred
jxaluz/o jealousy cxas/i hunt, chase
jxauxd/o Thursday edz/o husband
jxurnal/o newspaper mi I
jxus just (now) je (indef. preposition)
kaf/o coffee cxu (interr.) (is it true that...)
kaj and glaci/o ice
kanjon/o canyon ide/o idea
kant/i sing se if
kapt/i catch imag/i imagine
kat/o cat tuj immediately
ke that en in
klin/i bow, lean over (trans.) indian/o indian (N American)
klub/o club, group antaux in front of, before
knab/o boy insekt/o insect
kokakol/o Coke anstataux instead of
komenc/i begin (trans.) interes/o interest
kompren/i understand interes/i interest (trans.)
kon/i know, be acq. with gxi it
kongres/o congress, convention januar/o January
kontent/a content jxaluz/o jealousy
kontraux against juli/o July
korespond/i correspond juni/o June
kost/i cost gxangal/o jungle
kovert/o envelope jxus just (now)
kri/i cry sci/i know (something)
kuir/i cook kon/i know, be acq. with
kuk/o cake lingv/o language
kun with rid/i laugh
kunikl/o rabbit lern/i learn
kur/i run limonad/o lemonade
kurs/o course lecion/o lesson
kvar four leter/o letter
kvin five mensog/i lie
la the lum/o light
labor/i work sxat/i like
lakt/o milk auxskult/i listen
land/o country, land viv/i live
lav/i wash rigard/i look (at)
lecion/o lesson am/i love
leg/i read vir/o man
lern/i learn mart/o March
leter/o letter maj/o May
li he renkont/i meet
libr/o book membr/o member
limonad/o lemonade mejl/o mile
lingv/o language lakt/o milk
logx/i reside milion/o million
lud/i play minut/o minute
lum/o light lund/o Monday
lund/o Monday mon/o money
maj/o May monat/o month
mangx/i eat pli more
mar/o sea maten/o morning
mard/o Tuesday plej most
mart/o March sxose/o motorway, freeway
maten/o morning mont/o mountain
mejl/o mile dev/i must
membr/o member nom/o name
mensog/i lie naci/o nation
merkred/o Wednesday neces/a necessary
met/i put, place bezon/i need
mi I neuxtral/a neutral
mil thousand nov/a new
milion/o million jxurnal/o newspaper
minut/o minute nokt/o night
mon/o money nul/o nil, name of nr. zero
monat/o month naux nine
mont/o mountain ne no, not
naci/o nation nord/o north
nagx/i swim novembr/o November
naux nine oktobr/o October
ne no, not da of (quantity)
neces/a necessary de of, from
negx/o snow oft/e often
neuxtral/a neutral sur on
ni we oni one
nigr/a black unu one
nokt/o night aux or
nom/o name ali/a other
nord/o north el out of
nov/a new ekster outside
novembr/o November paper/o paper
nul zero part/o part
nul/o nil, name of nr. zero pas/i pass
nutrajx/o food, nourishment plum/o pen, feather
oft/e often hom/o person
ok eight lud/i play
okaz/i take place, happen posx/o pocket
oktobr/o October polus/o pole (north and south)
ol than problem/o problem
ond/o wave prosper/i prosper
oni one pun/i punish
opini/i think, have an opinion met/i put, place
ost/o bone rapid/a quick
ov/o egg silent/a quiet
paf/i shoot kunikl/o rabbit
pan/o bread pluv/o rain
pantofl/o slipper leg/i read
paper/o paper disk/o record, disc
parol/i speak varb/i recruit
part/o part rugx/a red
pas/i pass si reflexive pronoun
patr/o father postul/i require, demand
pens/i think logx/i reside
per by means of ricx/a rich
pet/i ask (request) cxambr/o room
pilk/o ball kur/i run
placx/i be pleasing sam/a same
plagx/o beach sabl/o sand
plej most sandvicx/o sandwich
plen/a full sabat/o Saturday
pli more dir/i say
plor/i cry traf/i score, hit
plum/o pen, feather mar/o sea
pluv/o rain vid/i see
polus/o pole (north and south) vend/i sell
por for septembr/o September
port/i carry, wear sep seven
post after akr/a sharp
postul/i require, demand sxi she
posx/o pocket sxaf/o sheep
pov/i be able to bril/i shine
pren/i take sxu/o shoe
pri about, concerning paf/i shoot
problem/o problem butik/o shop
promen/i walk kant/i sing
prosper/i prosper ses six
pun/i punish dorm/i sleep
pur/a clean, pure pantofl/o slipper
rapid/a quick fum/o smoke
renkont/i meet negx/o snow
respond/i answer solv/i solve
ricx/a rich fil/o son
rid/i laugh son/i sound
rigard/i look (at) parol/i speak
rob/o dress star/i stand
rugx/a red step/o steppe
sabat/o Saturday halt/i stop (intrans.)
sabl/o sand stud/i study
sag/o arrow sukces/i succeed
salut/i greet suficx/a sufficient
sam/a same suker/o sugar
san/a healthy valiz/o suitcase
sandvicx/o sandwich sun/o sun
sat/i be satisfied dimancx/o Sunday
sci/i know (something) dolcx/a sweet
se if nagx/i swim
sed but tabl/o table
segx/o chair tabl/o/tenis/o table tennis, ping-pong
sek/a dry pren/i take
semajn/o week okaz/i take place, happen
sen without cel/o target, goal
sep seven task/o task
septembr/o September gust/o taste
ses six te/o tea
si reflexive pronoun instru/i teach
silent/a quiet dek ten
skatol/o box tenis/o tennis
skrib/i write atest/i testify
soif/a thirsty ol than
solv/i solve dank/i thank
son/i sound ke that
star/i stand la the
step/o steppe ili they
stud/i study pens/i think
sub under opini/i think, have an opinion
suficx/a sufficient soif/a thirsty
sukces/i succeed cxi this (with correlative)
suker/o sugar ci thou
sun/o sun mil thousand
super above teatr/o threatre
sur on tri three
sxaf/o sheep tra through
sxat/i like jxauxd/o Thursday
sxi she temp/o time
sxose/o motorway, freeway al to(wards)
sxu/o shoe tamtam/o tomtom
tabl/o table urb/o town
tabl/o/tenis/o table tennis, ping-pong vojagx/i travel
tag/o day arb/o tree
tamtam/o tomtom ver/a true
tas/o cup mard/o Tuesday
task/o task du two
te/o tea tip/o type
teatr/o threatre sub under
temp/o time kompren/i understand
tenis/o tennis gxis until
ter/o earth uz/i use
tip/o type vast/a vast, huge
tra through tre very
traf/i score, hit vilagx/o village
trancx/i cut vizit/i visit
tre very atend/i wait for
tri three promen/i walk
trink/i drink vol/i want
trov/i find varm/a warm
tuj immediately lav/i wash
tut/a whole ond/o wave
unu one akv/o water
urb/o town ni we
uz/i use merkred/o Wednesday
valiz/o suitcase semajn/o week
varb/i recruit dum while, during
varm/a warm blank/a white
vast/a vast, huge tut/a whole
ven/i come gajn/i win
vend/i sell fenestr/o window
vendred/o Friday vin/o wine
ver/a true dezir/i wish, desire
verd/a green kun with
vesper/o evening sen without
vi you vort/o word
vid/i see labor/i work
vilagx/o village skrib/i write
vin/o wine jahxt/o yacht
vir/o man jar/o year
viv/i live flav/a yellow
vizit/i visit jes yes
vojagx/i travel vi you
vol/i want jun/a young
vort/o word nul zero

Esperanto Affixes

AffixMeaningExamples of use
I a. Official Prefixes:
bo- relationship by marriage,
-in-law
bopatrino = mother-in-law
bofrato = brother-in-law
dis- dis-, dispersal, separation,
scattering, dismemberment
disjxeti = to scatter about,
disdoni = to distribute,
disauxdigi = to broadcast,
disigi = to separate, to take apart,
disigxi = to disintegrate, to fall apart
ek- momentary, sudden,
commencement,
beginning of action
or brief lasting action
ekiri = to start,
ekbrili = to flash,
ekvidi = to notice,
ekkrii = to shout out,
eki = to begin, to start,
ni eku! = let's get started
eks- ex-, former eksregxo = ex-king,
eksedzino = ex-wife,
eksigi = to discharge (from office), to impeach,
eksigxi = to resign
fi- shameful, nasty,
morally bad,
moral degradation,
contempt
fiago = shameful act,
figazeto = "smutty" magazine,
fialudi = innuendo, evil insinuation,
fikomercisto = swindler,
fia = nasty, horrid,
fiacxa = repulsing in any regard
ge- of both sexes together gepatroj = parents,
gejunuloj = youth, young people,
gesinjoroj = ladies and gentleman,
gea = of both sexes, unisex
mal- opposite malgranda = small,
malami = to hate,
malaperi = to vanish, to disappear,
malricxa = poor,
malbona = bad,
malbela = ugly,
malforta = weak,
malfacila = difficult,
maldekstra = left,
malfermi = to open,
malkonsenti = to disagree,
mala = opposite,
male = on the contrary, contrary to
mis- mis-, amiss, wrongly miskompreni = to misunderstand,
miskompreno = misunderstanding,
misuzi = to misuse,
misuzo = abuse
pra- remote (time), primordiality,
remoteness of relationship,
of great antiquity, primeval,
great (in family relationship),
ancient, fore-
prapatroj = ancestors,
praavo = great-grandfather,
pranepo = great-grandson,
prahistorio = prehistory,
pratempo = the ancient past,
pratempa, praa = ancient
re- re-, return, repetition,
back, over again
resendi = to send back,
reveni = to come back, to return (intr),
redoni = to give back, to return (tr),
rebrili = to reflect,
reverki = to re-write (a book, etc.)
I b. Unofficial Prefixes:
pseuxdo- pseudo- pseuxdoscienco = pseudoscience,
pseuxdonomo = pseudonym
retro- backward retroiri = to retire, withdraw, retreat,
retrorigardi = to look back
II a. Official Suffixes:
-acx- scorn, disparagement,
contemptible, disgusting,
bad kind
domacxo = hovel, shack, shanty,
skribacxi = to scrawl,
infanacxo = brat,
virinacxo = hag,
cxevalacxo = sorry nag,
veteracxo = filthy weather,
acxulo = creep, thug,
acxajxo = abomination
-ad- frequent, repetitive
or habitual action,
prolonged action,
continuation of action
nagxado = swimming,
pafado = shooting,
kuirado = cooking,
agadi = to act,
agado = action, activity,
movado = movement,
parolado = a speach,
kuradi = to keep on running
-ajx- thing (concrete idea),
a concrete manifestation
of an abstraction,
the external manifestation
of an activity,
a characteristic piece of
behaviour,
the flesh of an animal,
product, dish
segajxo = sawdust,
bovajxo = beef,
sxafajxo = mutton,
kokinajxo, kokidajxo = chicken,
fluajxo = liquid,
pakajxo = package, thing packed,
sendajxo = shipment, thing sent,
infanajxo = a childish act,
ovajxo = scrambled eggs,
gxentilajxo = polite, courteous act,
verdajxo = greenery, something green,
mangxajxo = food,
fragajxo = strawberry jam,
sekajxoj = dry goods,
dolcxajxoj = sweets, candies,
ajxo = a thing, object,
Esperantajxoj = publications or other collectibles related to Esperanto
-an- member (of a group),
inhabitant (of a place
or country), partisan,
participant, adherent
ano = member,
klubano = club member,
kursano = a course participant,
kongresano = congressman, delegate,
vilagxano = villager,
urbanoj = townspeople,
nederlandano = dutchman,
londonano = londoner,
amerikanoj = americans,
kristano = christian
-ar- collective, group, set,
a collection of like things
arbaro = forest, woods,
anaro = members' body,
vortaro = dictionary,
libraro = library,
auxdantaro = audience,
homaro = mankind,
aro = collection, set
-cxj- pet-name (masculine)
[truncation of root optional]
pacxjo = daddy,
Jocxjo = Johnny, Joe,
Tomcxjo = Tom, Tommy
-ebl- -able, -ible, possibility legebla = legible,
portebla = portable,
videbla = visible,
mangxebla = edible,
kredebla = credible, believable,
kredeble = possibly, probably,
eble = perhaps,
ebla = possible,
ebleco = possibility
-ec- quality, abstract idea,
-ness, -ship
blankeco = whiteness,
rapideco = speed,
silkeca = silky,
amikeco = friendship,
klareco = clearness,
profesoreco = professorship,
moleco = softness,
malmoleco = hardness,
eco = quality
-eg- augmentative, great size,
intense degree
bonega = excellent,
petegi = to beseech, to implore,
domego = mansion,
ridegi = to guffaw,
varmega = hot,
ega = great,
ege = very
-ej- place alloted to
or characterized by, space
lernejo = school,
kuirejo = kitchen,
logxejo = apartment,
vendejo = store,
herbejo = meadow,
hundejo = dog kennel,
pregxejo = temple, church,
ejo = place
-em- propensity, disposition,
tendency
babilema = loquacious,
parolema = talkative,
komprenema = understanding,
laborema = hard working, industrious,
sxparema = thrifty,
mortema = mortal,
ludema = playful,
kredema = credulous,
kolerema = irascible,
suspektema = open to suspicion,
samseksema = homosexual,
malsamseksema = heterosexual,
ambauxseksema = bisexusual,
ema = inclined, disposed, prone, apt,
malema = unwilling, reluctant,
eme = willingly, readily,
emo = tendency, inclination, disposition
-end- to be -ed, which-must-be-done,
necessity of action
pagenda = payable, to be payed, due,
detruenda = to be destroyed,
solvenda = must be solved,
farenda = to be done, must be done
-er- item, unit, fragment,
small particle of a whole,
element
panero = crumb,
cxenero = link,
pluvero = raindrop,
monero = coin,
pulvero = dust particle,
fajrero = spark,
sablero = grain of sand,
diserigi = to split up, grind down,
ero = element, particle, part
-estr- leader, ruler, head, chief estro = chief,
estri = to govern, direct, lead,
sxtatestro = head of state,
guberniestro = state governor,
staciestro = station master,
urbestro = mayor,
regnestro = ruler,
lernejestro = head-master, principal, school director,
sxipestro = captain, ship's master
-et- diminutive dormeti = to doze, to slumber,
libreto = booklet,
lageto = pond,
dometo = cottage,
varmeta = luke-warm,
rideti = to smile,
eta = small, minimal
-id- offspring, the descendant of,
the young of an animal
ido = child, infant, descendant, scion,
idoj = progeny,
izraelido = israelite,
regxido = prince,
hundido = puppy,
katido = kitten,
cxevalido = colt,
bovido = calf,
kokido = chick
-ig- to make, to render,
to cause, to bring about
purigi = to clean, to purify,
ebligi = to make possible,
mortigi = to kill,
plenigi = to fill,
blankigi = to whiten,
ruinigi = to ruin,
bruligi = to burn something (tr),
timigi = to frighten,
plibonigi = to improve something (tr),
lumigi = to put on the light,
bindigi = to have bound,
starigi = to stand (tr),
sciigi = to let know, to inform,
igi = to make someone or to cause something to be
-igx- to become, get,
action of becoming
edzigxi = to get married (to become a husband),
edzinigxi = to get married (to become a wife),
naskigxi = to be born,
rugxigxi = to blush,
blankigxi = to grow white, whiten,
plibonigxi = to improve (intr),
sidigxi = to sit down, to become seated,
movigxi = to move of itself,
enlitigxi = to get into bed,
ruligxi = to roll (intr),
sciigxi = to get to know, become aware,
igxi = to become by self
-il- instrument, means,
tool, implement
ilo = tool,
hakilo = axe,
sxlosilo = key,
kudrilo = needle,
trancxilo = knife,
razilo = razor,
flugilo = wing,
montrilo = pointer, arrow
-in- female, feminine virino = woman,
patrino = mother,
regxino = queen,
fratino = sister,
onklino = aunt,
cxevalino = mare,
kokino = hen,
ino = female
-ind- worthiness,
worthy to be -ed
lauxdinda = praiseworthy,
admirinda = worthy of admiration, admirable, worth -ing
aminda = loveable, worthy of love,
memorinda = memorable,
vidinda = worth seeing,
vizitinda = worth a trip,
inda = worthy
-ing- holder, socket,
sheath (for one object)
glavingo = scabbard,
plumingo = penholder,
kandelingo = candlestick
-ist- person habitually occupied
or concerned with something,
professional or enthusiastic
amateur, adherent, partisan
instruisto = teacher,
artisto = artist,
pentristo = painter,
policisto = policeman,
masxinisto = machinist,
biciklisto = cyclist,
maristo = sailor,
sxuisto = shoemaker,
drogisto = druggist,
marksisto = marxist,
Esperantisto = Esperantist
-nj- pet-name (feminine)
[truncation of root optional]
panjo = mommy,
Manjo = Mary,
Nenjo = Nellie
-obl- multiple unuobla = single,
duobla = double, twofold,
trioble = triply, three times,
kvaroble = fourfold, quadruply,
dekduoble = twelve times,
dudekoble = twenty times,
centoble = a hundredfold,
multobligi, obligi = to multiply
-on- fraction duono = half,
duonigi = to halve,
sesono = sixth,
centono = a hundredth part
-op- collective unuope = one by one, singly,
duope = two by two, in twos,
kvaropo = quartet,
kvarope = four abreast, by fours,
centope = by hundreds, a hundred at a time
-uj- (1) container, receptacle monujo = purse,
inkujo = inkstand,
ujo = generic container
(2) land, country Anglujo = England,
Esperantujo = Esperanto-land (everywhere where E-o is spoken)
(3) tree or bush
bearing fruit
pomujo = apple tree,
pirujo = pear-tree,
plumujo = plum-tree,
vinberujo = vine
-ul- person (possesing a certain
quality), characterised by
junulo = youth, young man,
belulino = beauty,
bravulo = brave man,
blindulo = blind person,
surdulo = deaf person,
mutulo = mute person,
ricxulo = rich man,
drinkulo = drunkard,
sagxulo = wise man, sage,
samseksemulo = homosexual, gay,
kunulo = companion,
fremdulo = stranger,
ulo = person, individual
-um- indefinite relation malvarmumi = to catch cold,
plenumi = to fulfil,
tendumi = to camp,
literumi = to spell,
okulumi = to ogle,
foliumi = to browse, to glance (through a book),
kolumo = collar,
manumo = wrist band,
plandumo = sole (of shoe),
ventumi = to fan,
ventumilo = a fan,
aerumi = to ventilate,
komunumo = community,
krucumi = to crucify,
amikumi = to be friends,
Esperantumi = to use Esperanto (and to enjoy it)
II b. Unofficial Suffixes:
-i- country Francio = France,
Britio = Great Britain,
Bulgario, Meksikio
-ism- -ism, theory, system,
characteristic behaviour,
pattern
platonismo = platonism,
protektismo = protectionism,
alkoholismo = alcoholism,
magnetismo = magnetism,
feticxismo = fetishism,
anglismo = anglicism

Esperanto Correlatives

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